The first smile, the first tooth, the first "bye bye" with the hand, the first vocalizations up to the first "mom" and "dad" pronounced with that little voice that will remain an indelible memory. These are some of the developmental milestones in the first year of life. An intense year, studded with countless achievements. What are the milestones of the second?
Taking that for granted each child is unique and it grows at its own pace, but on average after the first candle (there are those who do it even before) it takes its first steps and during the second year it becomes more and more confident and agile. Gradually he stops staggering, he also begins to go up and down the stairs and kick the ball and kick in an attempt to run after her quickly.
Also language skills grow, even though he still understands more than he can put into words. Around 18 months he on average utters at least 6 little words and around the age of two he combines 2-4 words to formulate the first sentences. Talking to him and using correct language is essential for developing his talkativeness.
Typically in this period he begins to identify shapes and colors, to build towers with buildings, and has fun filling and emptying containers.
It is plausible that you manifest the desire to want to do all by himself. And imitate what adults do: talk on the phone, feed a doll, pretend to cook or drive a car.
"In the first two years of life - he explains Anna Oliverio Ferraris, psychologist, psychotherapist and professor of developmental psychology at Sapienza di della città - children pass from a phase of total dependence on the mother's body and its physical and psychological care to a progressive autonomy, albeit very initial and gradual. They begin to walk and then can move away from their attachment figures, and then return when they want. Points of reference and relationships increase: fathers, brothers, grandparents, nursery nurses, peers with whom they have significant exchanges and ties. The "no", often pronounced, not only has the value of self-affirmation but is also indicative of the need to verify whether, for a series of activities, the child can have his own space of autonomy or if, instead, he must continue to follow the instructions of adults ".
In this article
- How to support growth
- Security in the second year of life
- Things to do, things not to do
- When to contact the pediatrician
How to support growth
- Read a little book, a story, a nursery rhyme aloud every day.
- Ask to name objects and body parts.
- Play together by involving him in the undertaking of making simple puzzles or interlocking shapes.
- Encourage him to explore his surroundings and to experiment.
- To encourage the development of his verbal skills, talk to him / her, complete the sentences he begins. For example, if it says "baba", to indicate the bottle, go on to say, "Yes, you're right, it's a bottle." Be careful not to scold him and not to emphasize the fact that she used the words incorrectly, rather just correctly rephrase what she meant. And when she points to something she wants, repeat the name of the object of he des of her.
- Encourage the development of his independence, for example by letting him dress and eat alone.
- Involve him in putting the toys in order by dividing them into similar categories: red toys, soft ones, stuffed animals, rubber animals, and so on, from time to time.
- Try to spend a lot of time outdoors: where he can walk, run and explore freely.
- Encourage the early community (daycare), because it enriches the experience and helps to expand the complexity of the stimuli (and certainly also to make up for any shortcomings that may exist in the most unfortunate families).
- Reinforce his good behavior with adequate praise. Set limits simple and clear and be consistent in keeping them.
Security in the second year of life
During the second year of life, most boys and girls begin to walk, over time they acquire more and more familiarity and ease in walking, until they practically never stay still. Inevitably, you must never lose sight of them to prevent them from getting into potentially dangerous situations.
- Never leave your baby alone in the bath, swimming pool, soaking in sea water, in a pond or river. Even if the water is shallow, there must always be an adult to watch over. Drowning is the leading cause of accidents and deaths in this age group. If you have a swimming pool in the garden, use the appropriate fences.
- Block access to the stairs with a small gate or fence. Lock doors in dangerous places like the garage or basement.
- Make sure your home is childproof by placing appropriate covers on all electrical outlets.
- Keep kitchen appliances, iron, etc. beyond its reach. And when you cook, place the pots on the fire so that the handles are not easily within reach of his hand.
- Keep sharp objects (scissors, knives ...) in a safe place.
- Store medicines and detergents in places that are not accessible to him / her.
- As he acquires new skills, look around to ensure he can move freely and safely around the house and prevent domestic accidents.
- Never leave the child alone in the car (in a camper, caravan), not even for a few moments.
- When traveling by car, use the appropriate child seats.
Things to do, things not to doRead also: Milk for babies after 12 months
Things not to do
- No to sugary drinks. Yes to water, juices and centrifuges and milk. After the first year, the baby eats different foods, but breast milk can still be an important element of his diet.
- not there tv. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, it is better if children under 2 do not watch television (not even tablets, etc.).
Things to do
- Yes to patience at the table. If he's not a glutton, don't turn meals into a constant tug-of-war. Offer healthy and varied foods and in case of refusal continue to propose those foods again on other occasions. It may take some time for you to appreciate them.
- Yes to physical activity. Runs, jumps, moves all the time? In this period he is developing motor coordination, fine manipulation ...
When to contact the pediatrician
Beyond the usual visits for health balances, even in the awareness that each child is unique and grows at their own pace, contact the pediatrician if at 18 months:
- He does not walk
- It does not include the use of everyday objects
- Doesn't say the first few words yet (or the first sentences at 2 years old)
- It does not imitate words and actions
- He does not follow simple instructions
- It regresses, losing acquired skills
Alessandro Ventura, director of the pediatrics department of the Hospital - University of Trieste, invites parents not to let themselves be taken by insecurity and the fear of making mistakes, of not doing well, of not realizing that something is wrong.
"Above all, it will be the eyes of love that will help us to do 'everything right', without the need for many lessons, and to guarantee the child the best possible also and above all in terms of cognitive, social and psychological development".
"There is no doubt - he adds - that the most important thing for the better maturation of a boy and a girl, the best guarantee of their well-being and their balance among others, in the world, is precisely to feel the same thing. more important for their parents and to be sure that this is the case. " And then it is "in a relationship that lives in this dimension (and only in this one) that it will certainly be useful for mothers and fathers to know something more about the physiological stages, the alarm signals or the things that are convenient or not convenient to do" .
- Toddlers (1-2 years of age) - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Milestones: 13 to 24 months
To learn more
- the development of the child in the third year of life
- the development of the child between four and five years
- the development of the child between six and eight years
- the development of the child between nine and 11 years
- the development of the child between 12 and 14 years
Questions and answers
How to support the growth of a two-year-old child?
Read a little book, a story, a nursery rhyme aloud every day. Ask to name objects and body parts. Play together by involving him in the undertaking of making simple puzzles or interlocking shapes. Encourage him to explore his surroundings and to experiment. Encourage the development of his independence, for example by letting him dress and eat alone. Involve him in putting the toys in order, breaking them down into similar categories: red toys, soft ones, stuffed animals, rubber animals, and so on, from time to time. Try to spend a lot of time outdoors: where he can walk, run and explore freely.
The child is two years old. What shouldn't he do?
No to sugary drinks. Yes to water, juices and centrifuges and milk. After the first year, the baby eats different foods, but breast milk can still be an important part of his diet. No to TV. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, it is better if children under 2 do not watch television (not even tablets, etc.).
The child is two years old. What should I do?
Yes to patience at the table. If he's not a glutton, don't turn your meals into a constant tug-of-war. Offer healthy and varied foods and in case of refusal continue to propose those foods again on other occasions. It may take some time for you to appreciate them. Yes to physical activity. Runs, jumps, moves all the time? In this period he is developing motor coordination, fine manipulation ...
- child growth
- child development
- 1-2 children years