Contraceptive methods: there is not only the pill

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Philippe Gloaguen
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50 years ago, women were starting to choose when it came to motherhood. On March 10, 1971, the contraceptive pill became legal. AIED (Association of the Paesena for Demographic Education) has in fact obtained the repeal by the Constitutional Court of art. 553 of the Criminal Code which prohibited contraception in Del Paese. But the contraceptive revolution is still a long way off. How many contraceptive methods do you know?



In this article

  • Contraceptive methods
  • Contraceptive methods: the pill
  • Contraceptive methods: condom
  • Contraceptive methods: internal condom
  • Contraceptive methods: implantation
  • Contraceptive methods: patch
  • Contraceptive methods: vaginal ring
  • Contraceptive methods: IUS intrauterine device
  • Contraceptive methods: intrauterine device
  • Contraceptive methods: diaphragms and caps
  • Contraceptive methods: during lactation
Read also: Contraception after childbirth

Contraceptive methods

There are several contraceptive methods:



  • some are used before sexual intercourse such as hormonal contraceptives (estrogen-progestogen pill, contraceptive ring, transdermal patch, subcutaneous contraceptive), intrauterine devices (IUD commonly called spiral)
  • others are used during sexual intercourse such as barrier methods (condom or condom, diaphragm, chemical methods, spermicides (capsules, pessaries, jellies, creams).
  • and then they exist natural methods (Ogino-Knaus method, basal temperature method, Billings method, coitus interruptus)

Contraceptive methods: the pill

After three months from the conquest of the yes to divorce as a legal practice for the dissolution of the marriage bond, here comes another big step towards the freedom of women with the freedom of contraception.



However, in Del Paese the ban on the sale of contraceptives in pharmacies continued, as the Ministry of Health continued to apply some rules of the "Regulation for the registration of drugs" (Reg. No. 478 of 1927), which did not allow "registration of medicinal specialties and medical-surgical aids with contraceptive indications ".

For this reason, in fact, contraceptives were still registered under "disguise": the pill as a regulator of menstrual cycles, while spermicides as antiseptics for the intimate hygiene of women. It was AIED to initiate a solitary complaint action in 1976 legal and political and only following that mobilization, in October 1976, the Ministry proceeded to repeal those rules.

The pill

The combined pill, commonly called the pill, contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin. These are similar to the natural hormones produced by the ovaries. There are different types of combination pill and different ways to take it.

Effectiveness: the pill is most effective when used perfectly.
It is 99% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 91% with normal use.

Remember regularly: you need to take the pill every day at about the same time.

Menstruation: Depending on how you take the combination pill, it could make your periods more regular, lighter and less painful, or your periods might stop all at once. It can also help with premenstrual symptoms.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: Contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin.

Contraceptive methods: condom

External condoms are barrier methods of contraception. They prevent sperm from meeting an egg.



Effectiveness: external condoms are most effective when used perfectly. They are 98% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 82% with normal use.

Remember before sex: use a new condom every time you have sex.

Menstruation: Condoms do not alter the cycle.

STI protection: yes. External condoms are the only methods of contraception that help protect you from STIs.

Hormones: no hormones.

Contraceptive methods: internal condom

Internal condoms are barrier methods of contraception. They prevent sperm from meeting an egg. An internal condom is made of polyurethane (soft plastic) or nitrile polymer (synthetic rubber). It is inserted into the vagina and loosely aligns it.

Effectiveness: Internal condoms are most effective when used perfectly. They are 95% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 79% with normal use.

Remember before sex: use a new condom every time you have sex. You can enter in advance if you wish.

Menstruation: Condoms do not alter the cycle.

STI protection: yes. External and internal condoms are the only methods of contraception that help protect you from STIs.

Hormones: no hormones.

Contraceptive methods: implantation

A contraceptive implant is a small flexible rod that is placed just under the skin on the upper arm. It releases a progestin hormone similar to natural progesterone produced by the ovaries. It works for three years.

Effectiveness: More than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy - one of the most effective methods there is.

Fit and forget: Once you have one, you don't have to remember to take or use contraception for 3 years.

Periods: they can be irregular, stop or last longer. It can help with heavy and painful periods.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: yes. The implant releases the progestin hormone.

Contraceptive methods: patch

The contraceptive patch is a small, thin, beige patch measuring almost 5cm x 5cm.

You attach it to the skin and it releases two hormones: estrogen and progestin. These are similar to the natural hormones produced by the ovaries and are like those used in the combined pill.

Effectiveness: The patch is most effective when used perfectly. It is 99% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 91% with normal use.

Remember regularly: you need to change the patch once a week.

Periods: Depending on how you use the patch, it can make your periods more regular, lighter and less painful, or your periods can break all together. It can also help with premenstrual symptoms.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: Contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin.

Contraceptive methods: vaginal ring

The contraceptive vaginal ring is a flexible and transparent plastic ring. It is inserted into the vagina where it releases two hormones: estrogen and progestin. These are similar to the natural hormones produced by the ovaries and are like those used in the combined pill.

Effectiveness: the ring is most effective when used perfectly. It is 99% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 91% with normal use.

Remember regularly: you have to take off the old ring and put on a new one every month.

Menstruation: Depending on how you take the contraceptive vaginal ring, it may make your periods more regular, lighter and less painful, or your periods may stop all at once. It can also help with premenstrual symptoms.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: Contains two hormones: estrogen and progestin.

Contraceptive methods: diaphragms and caps

Diaphragms and hoods are barrier methods of contraception. This means that they help you not to get pregnant by preventing sperm from meeting an egg. They fit into your vagina and cover the cervix (entrance to the uterus - uterus). Diaphragms and caps are available in different shapes and sizes. Vaginal diaphragms are circular silicone domes with a flexible edge. The cervical caps are smaller and are made of silicone. To be effective, diaphragms and caps should be used with a spermicide. Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm. It comes in different forms, such as cream or gel.

Effectiveness: Diaphragms and caps are most effective when used perfectly and with spermicide.
They are 92-96% effective in preventing pregnancy with perfect use and approximately 71-88% with normal use.

Remember Before Having Sex: You must put your diaphragm or hood on before having sex.

Periods: Diaphragms and caps do not alter your periods.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: no hormones.

Contraceptive methods: intrauterine device

An IUD is a small, flexible device made of plastic and copper that is inserted into your uterus (uterus). It has one or two thin threads at the end that hang from the cervix (the entrance to the uterus) at the top of the vagina.

An IUD works for contraception for 5 or 10 years, depending on the type. If you are 40 or older when the IUD is fitted, it will work for contraception until after menopause, when contraception is not needed.

Effectiveness: More than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy - one of the most effective methods there is.

Fit and forget: Once you have one, you don't have to remember to take or use contraception for at least 5 years.

Periods: They can be heavier, longer, or more painful. This can improve after a few months.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: The IUD is hormone-free.

Contraceptive methods: IUS intrauterine device

An IUS is a small plastic device that is inserted into the uterus (womb) and releases a progestin hormone. This is similar to the natural progesterone produced by the ovaries. The IUS works as a contraception for three to five years depending on the type. There are different types and sizes with different amounts of the progestin hormone. If you are over 45 when a particular type of IUS (Mirena) is fitted, it will work as contraception until after menopause, when contraception is not needed.

Effectiveness: More than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy - one of the most effective methods there is.

Fit and forget: Once you have one, you don't need to remember to take or use contraception. The IUS can work for 3 to 5 years depending on what type you get.

Periods: They can be lighter, shorter or less painful. It can stop or become erratic.

Protection against sexually transmitted diseases: No. Use external or internal condoms to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases.

Hormones: releases the progestin hormone

Contraceptive methods: during lactation

The methods of contraception during breastfeeding as a barrier - condom (male or female) and vaginal diaphragm - they do not affect the health of the mother or baby in any way. Via the condom too.
In the nursing woman, the progestogen-only pill can be used starting six weeks after giving birth, while the estrogen-progestogen association in its various forms (oral pill, but also patch or ring) can be used six months after giving birth

Unconventional after childbirth

It's true: breastfeeding reduces a woman's fertility (it also reduces it by 98%, within six months of birth and if it is practiced exclusively and frequently), but it cannot be said to represent a reliable method of birth control. To avoid too early pregnancies, therefore, it is good to rely on some safer method.

  • condoms
  • diaphragm (after 6 weeks)
  • spiral (after 6 weeks)
  • hormonal methods
  • coitus interrupted
  • diaphragm

Article sources: Aied, Gov. Health and Sexwise

TAG:
  • contraception
  • breastfeed contraception
  • contraception and breastfeeding
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