Even at school you can get hurt, perhaps in moments of play, when they can occur accidents which can lead to wounds and trauma. And also the suffocation, for airway obstruction due to a foreign body, is a possible risk. In all these cases, it is crucial intervene in a timely manner, knowing exactly what to do and what not to do.
La Simeup, Del Paesena Society of Pediatric Emergency and Urgency Medicine, remembers the rules to follow (in line with what is established by the scientific literature) and launches a small handbook of useful advice for the safety of children at school. Emphasizing that, of course, he should always be present at school staff trained in unblocking maneuvers and pediatric first aid.
In this article
- Head trauma
- Dental trauma
In general, it is important to protect the wound, contain bleeding and keep the baby calm, as agitation and crying can increase blood supply and make rescue more complicated.
Small wounds: what to do
- Stop the flow of blood by pressing on the wound with a clean gauze;
- clean the ground, sand, any fragments of wood or glass with running water;
- wash with disinfectant;
- cover with a plaster.
Big wounds: what to do
- Stop the leakage of blood by pressing on the wound with a towel;
- maintain pressure on the wound until help arrives;
- avoid sudden or excessive movements of the baby;
- call the 118 or take the child to the emergency room.
Three things not to do
- Do not remove large foreign bodies because there is a risk of increasing bleeding;
- Do not use cotton wool to disinfect;
- Do not use the tourniquet, unless you are familiar with its use and it is not strictly necessary.
2. Head trauma
It results from a sudden and violent blow to the baby's head or face and can manifest itself with various symptoms: mild to severe headache, nausea or vomiting, amnesia, disturbed vision and balance, confusion, seizures, coma. Trauma to the cervical vertebrae can be associated with head trauma with possible spinal cord injury and scalp wounds, which can bleed profusely.
Watch the VIDEO: "Head trauma and first aid"
What to do
If there is a minor head injury, it must be disinfected and medicated and the pediatrician must be alerted. In the absence of injuries, it is good to apply ice where the child has hit.
In any case, the little one must be kept in observation for 24 hours. Check that he moves normally (he walks or grabs objects as usual) and, if he is big enough, check that he can say the names of people he knows or his toys. During sleep, it should be checked that he maintains the usual relaxed position and every 3 hours it must be checked that he can wake up, if called or with a pinch.
- If immediately after the trauma he has evident symptoms of cerebral involvement (loss of consciousness, bleeding from the ear or nose, vomiting, headache, restlessness, neurological disorders) it is necessary to take him to the emergency room or call 118.
- If during the first 24 hours following the trauma you have confusion, nausea, vomiting, vision and speech disturbances, muscle weakness, loss of consciousness or behavioral changes, you must call 118 and do not move. Read also: Head trauma, what to do if the child hits his head
Three things not to do
- Do not travel;
- do not force the baby to eat;
- do not give him drugs.
3. Dental trauma
It can easily occur if you fall while playing or playing sports.
Trauma of a milk tooth
At the moment there is no need to do anything special but, as soon as possible, it is good to subject the child to one dental evaluation.
Trauma of a permanent tooth
- If the trauma involves the loss of a tooth fragment, it must be recovered and taken to the dentist (it is not living tissue, so it is not necessary to run).
- If there is complete detachment of the tooth from the alveolus (avulsed tooth), this must be recovered, rinsed under running cold water and taken quickly to the emergency room because there may be the possibility of replanting it. To transport it, it must be immersed in cold milk, physiological solution or saliva. It is important to act quickly so as not to compromise the chances of recovery if it is replanted.
Choking in babies is mostly caused by obstruction of the airways by food or other objects that the baby can put into his mouth or nose. If the suffocation is partial, the baby cries, talks and can breathe, albeit with difficulty. Sometimes he manages to cough, trying to expel the foreign body. In case of complete suffocation, the baby does not cry, does not speak, does not breathe and the face becomes blue (cyanotic) due to the absence of oxygen.
Watch the VIDEO: "Clearance of the airways"
Partial suffocation: what to do
The first step is to try to soothe the baby by letting him stay in his preferred position. Another good practice is to encourage coughing. In some cases the baby will be able to expel the body, in other cases the choking may become complete.
Complete suffocation: what to do
Call 118 immediately and precisely follow the instructions provided. While waiting for help, start the maneuvers to clear the airways, to be carried out as long as the child is conscious. If the child loses consciousness, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately, alternating between 30 compressions and 2 breaths.
Choking, what not to do. Simeup's advice to avoid unnecessary risks at school
Read also: Head trauma, what to do if the baby hits his head
1. Avoid using toys that can be disassembled into small pieces and spheres, as they can be inhaled and cause suffocation;
2. Prefer non-powered toys "button" batteries, not so much for the risk of suffocation, as for the substances released, which can cause serious damage, sometimes even fatal (for example, perforation of the esophagus);
3. Pay attention to caps of pens and markers, which can be inhaled;
4. In the canteen service, avoid foods that, especially for the little ones, could turn into a trap (grapes, cherries, olives, sausages, mozzarella), causing obstruction of the airways;
5. Do not use scissors or other sharp objects when carrying out work in the classroom;
6. In case of emergency, don't panic and promptly carry out the first rescue maneuvers;
7. In play areas, remain vigilant e dissuade children from potentially dangerous games. Also read: How to Cut Food to Prevent Choking Hazard.
Questions and answers
What to do if the child has a head injury?
If there is a minor head injury, it must be disinfected and medicated and the pediatrician must be alerted. In the absence of injuries, it is good to apply ice where the child has hit. In any case, the little one should be kept under observation for 24 hours.
What to do in case of partial suffocation of the child?
The first step is to try to soothe the baby by letting him stay in his preferred position. Another good practice is to encourage coughing. In some cases the baby will be able to expel the body.
- pediatric first aid
- 6-14 children years