Placenta: what are the most frequent defects and what to do

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Catherine Le Nevez
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La placenta, a temporary organ that is formed from the fourth week of development dell 'embryo, is the main one bond between mum e bimbo and has the task of protect il fetus, feed him and support it development during time. It has the shape of a disco which adheres to wall dell 'uterus with inside i vasi sanguine mother and those fetal. There isn't, however contact direct between blood maternal and fetal, ie the passage of the substances nutrients andoxygen takes place through the so-called placental barrier (One membrane very thin).

La placenta It provides oxygen to the fetus and drives away thecarbon dioxide as well as purifies i liquid body and allows the passage of antibodies preventing theaccesso of elements pathogens. The crafts base is usually roundabout o Oval with two surfaces flat and a edge slightly thicker; is equipped with 2 appendices namely the fetal membrane and cord umbilical.

Il weight may vary from 400 a 700 grams. In fact, the placenta properly speaking it is much more small and is formed by wild corial and a surface amnio-chorionic: in short, the "small swimming pool" where is it swims e drinks il fetus.

However not always the placenta è perfect and this is because of some consequences about gravi. THE defects can occur in the diameter (placenta membranacea), in crafts (bilobata, bipartite o multilobate), in position (provided), in the'adherence (and here we are talking about increta placenta, accreta, percreta).

In the case, for example, of placenta membranacea la circumference zooms in and occupa, sometimes even del all wall uterine. They can occur hemorrhages is before and after il delivery. For placenta provided, instead, it indicates that situation in which it covers la uterine cervix, that is, yes "implants" in the part back dell 'uterus covering part or all of theorifice uterine internal; it often happens after i 35 years, if the woman has suffered interventions specific, local, after pregnancies multiple.

You have to stay a lot waiting therefore a hemorrhages vaginal (usually occur in the first three months area of pregnancy), The pains near ovaries e pelvis, and avoid efforts e relationships sexual. Usually, as theuterus grows, the placenta It "goes up" by itself; but when it stays low (and especially Central), makes difficult if not even risky childbirth vaginal. In this case, generally, to avoid suffering the fetus and large hemorrhages, doctors choose childbirth caesarean.

As for the problems of adherence uterine you must always stay atearly and ready to intervene in the case of hemorrhages (usually after the delivery, the specialist will understand how to intervene to remove surgically la placenta). In fact, in one pregnancy normal, the placenta it sticks to The walls uterine away from cervix e and detaches from the uterus after the delivery.

When it comes to placenta accreta it means that this one does attacks too in depth and with force The walls dell 'uterus; increta even more a fondo in the wall and finally in the condition of percreta placenta extends to the organs neighbors (the bladder). The consequences, for all the aforementioned cases, they are almost always hemorrhages vaginal al third quarter pregnancy and, often, parts premature. Among the factors of risk: having had others parts (vaginal or caesarean) or a previous one previous placenta.

The futures moms they can only try to avoid le situations of "excesses” relative a foods e beverages errors made during the pregnancy and then follow a correct one diet food: they should also avoid le emozioni too strong e delete i Vizi past like the smoke (precisely because the "placental filter"Is not infallible).

Of course only with behavior quote and with controls regular the pregnancy can go on so sereno. To monitor i changes internal (and external) of the body it's a duty to the future born unborn but above all towards themselves.

Finally get to know the position area of placenta it is also useful for choose to carry out theamniocentesis (between the fifteenth and eighteenth week of pregnancy it is possible to take a few ml of the amniotic fluid): this kind of exam not mandatory allows to diagnose fetal infections, gene pathologies ed anomalies of chromosome.

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