Vaccinations of the newborn: what they are and schedule

Vaccinations of the newborn: what they are and schedule

Vaccinations of the newborn

The first compulsory vaccination is usually carried out between the second month of life and the third month. AND the ASL vaccination clinic to send the communication home, indicating where and when to present with the child and indicating what will be vaccinated against.

If they are carried out in the ASL clinic, the vaccinations are a charged to the National Health Service, so they are free. Here's what's useful to know on the subject.

In this article


Vaccines: here is the antiufal decalogue

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All mandatory vaccinations

What are the 10 mandatory vaccines

Under the vaccine law passed in summer 2022, there are ten compulsory vaccines in all. As we will see later, not all are done at two / three months of life. The 10 mandatory vaccines are:

  • anti-poliomyelitis;
  • anti-diphtheriae;
  • anti-tetanica;
  • anti-hepatitis B;
  • whooping cough;
  • anti Haemophilusinfluenzae type B;
  • anti-measles;
  • anti-rubella;
  • anti-mumps;
  • anti-varicella.

In many cases, these vaccines are available in combined form: they are given to the child, with a single injection, multiple antigens at the same time against various diseases. This reduces the discomfort of the sting and increases the effectiveness of the immune response itself. For example, the hexavalent vaccine contains the components against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type B.

Read also: Whooping cough in children: symptoms, risks and vaccine

All recommended vaccinations

Vaccinations not compulsory but recommended

They remain outside the obligation, but can be executed voluntarily, other vaccinations however considered very important by the scientific community for the pediatric age, so much so that even these are offered in such a way active and free by vaccination services and are highly recommended by the Ministry of Health. It is about:

  • anti-pneumococci;
  • anti-meningococcal C (in monovalent form, the tetravalent ACWY);
  • anti-meningococcal B;
  • anti-rotavirus;
  • anti-HPV.

The vaccinations to be done in the third month of life

During the third month of the baby

Mandatory: first dose diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B (hexavalent).

Recommended: first dose meningococcus B; pneumococcal first dose.

The rest of the vaccination schedule

Four months Recommended: second dose meningococcus B.

Five months Mandatory: second dose diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B (hexavalent); Recommended: second pneumococcal dose.

Six months Recommended: third dose meningococcus B.

Between 3 and 7 months Recommended: rotavirus (two or three doses depending on the type of vaccine).

11 months Mandatory: third dose diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B (hexavalent); Recommended: third pneumococcal dose.

13 months Recommended: fourth dose Meningococcus B.

Between 13 and 15 months Mandatory: first dose measles, mumps and rubella (MMR); first dose chicken pox (or first tetravalent dose MPRV); Recommended: first dose Meningococcus C.

Six years Mandatory: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (DTP + polio) recall; recall measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox (MPR or MPRV).

Between 12 and 18 years Mandatory: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio (DTP + polio) recall; Recommended: HPV (two or three doses, for both females and males, depending on age and vaccine); recall meningococcus C, in the quadrivalent form ACWY.

Vaccinations for newborns in the time of the coronavirus

Reports from parents and health workers all go in the same direction: as often happens in our country, even in this pandemic period there are situations of discrepancy in the territory of the modality of the pediatric vaccination offer. Alongside situations in which vaccinations for children proceed regularly, there are others characterized by total cancellation of appointments (the temporary closure of some vaccination centers has also been reported) or their postponement.

"But yet there has never been any indication from the Ministry of Health to modify or reshape the vaccination offer, which should proceed according to the schedule of the National Vaccine Prevention Plan ", he states clearly Rocco Russo, coordinator of the technical table on vaccinations of the Del Paesena Society of Pediatrics, who raised an alarm on the subject a few days ago from one of the official bodies of the company, the Pediatric magazine.

"If it is understandable - wrote Russo - the fear of a parent who autonomously decides to postpone a vaccination session for their child, it is unacceptable to say the least that a Public Service decides to interrupt the vaccination offer, even for a short time or to opt for an offer that does not guarantee adequate protection for the child ".

Read also: Vaccinations for children in the time of Covid-19: why they must not be stopped

Russo specified in an interview with that he is "It is safe to get children vaccinated during the coronavirus emergency"There is no risk that there is a weakening of the child's immune system that would make him more susceptible to Sars-Cov-2." Sometimes parents fear that classic post-vaccine reactions, such as fever or pain at the point of injection, may represent a symptom of immunosuppression, of 'slowing down' of the child's immune activity, but this is not the case. These are not immunosuppressive reactions nor can they cause it. Indeed, these are mechanisms that indicate the reaction of the organism, the strengthening of its immunological activity ".

Likewise, Russo reassured that you can easily go to vaccination centers. "The World Health Organization itself has given very precise indications on how to manage the vaccination process in this situation, from staff training to respect for safety distances in waiting rooms, to ventilation of the environments".

"The centers that are vaccinating do so following these guidelines, instructing parents on how to do it: it is it is essential to respect the time of the appointment (whereas previously we often went more or less at that time), respect the safety distances (the centers will be able to make more rooms available for waiting, separating those who still have to get the vaccine and those who remain in place for some time afterwards having done so), enter one at a time and so on. "

Do vaccinations work?

The effectiveness of vaccines

Vaccinations are usually largely effective, that is, they work in a very large section of the population. However, there is always a small percentage of people who are not effectively immunized: usually 3-5% of the population, the so-called non-responders, who do not respond to the vaccine).

Furthermore, there are situations in which immunization does not last for life, but must be repeated periodically, as in the case of the tetanus vaccine, which in adulthood should be repeated every ten years. For other vaccinations, such as that against meningococcus B, which is relatively recent, we do not yet know exactly what the real duration of immunization is, so it is possible that children who have been vaccinated will be asked to have a booster in the future. .

The most common side effects

What are the side effects?

Like all drugs, vaccines can also have side effects, which in the vast majority of cases are mild and destined to resolve spontaneously within a few days. The most common are: mild fever (few lines), nervousness, drowsiness, little appetite, crying fits. According to the scientific community, the benefits of vaccinations undoubtedly outweigh the risks.

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If the child is sick on the day of the vaccination

Should vaccination be postponed?

It may happen that the child shows symptoms of malaise on the day of the vaccination. According to the Guide to contraindications to vaccinations, edited by experts from all over the country with the contribution of various scientific societies, mild forms of diseases such as otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections (cold, sore throat, flu), diarrhea, do not lead to a postponement of vaccination. Not even if there is fever.

If, on the other hand, it is a question of more important forms (for example a diarrhea that makes travel difficult) or moderate or severe illnesses such as pneumonia, it is better to postpone until after recovery. In reality there is no evidence that the disease can reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine or increase the risk of adverse events, but as a precaution it is better to wait.

Read also: Vaccinations in adolescence

Vaccinations and milk

Can the baby have milk as usual?

Some moms wonder if they can give milk (breast or formula) close to a vaccination. The answer is yes: the baby can take milk as often as ever and in the same quantities. The feed can also be offered just before vaccination or immediately after.

Read also: The baby diary of, from 0 to 12 months

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  • newborn 0-3 months
  • vaccinations of the newborn
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